Raporty z badań

Wpływ laseroterapii MLS® z różnymi schematami aplikacji w eksperymentalnym leczeniu zapalenia ścięgien u owiec: Badania pilotażowe

Iacopetti I., Perazzi A., Maniero V., Martinello T., Patruno M., Glazar M., Busetto R.

Effect of MLS® Laser Therapy with Different Dose Regimes for the Treatment of Experimentally Induced Tendinopathy in Sheep: Pilot Study

Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, March 2015, 33(3): 154-163, 2015

Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of Multiwave Locked System (MLS®), a particular model of low-level laser, in the acute phase of collagenase-induced tendon lesions in six adult sheep randomly assigned to two groups.

Background data: Tendon injuries are common among human athletes and in sport horses, require a long recovery time, and have a high risk of relapse. Many traditional treatments are not able to repair the injured tendon tissue correctly. In recent years, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) produced interesting results in inflammatory modulation in different musculoskeletal disorders.

Methods: Group 1 received 10 treatments of MLS laser therapy at a fluence of 5 J/cm2 on the left hindlimb. Group 2 received 10 treatments of MLS laser therapy at a fluence of 2.5 J/cm2 on the left hindlimb. In every subject in both groups, the right hindlimb was considered as the control leg.

Results: Clinical follow-up and ultrasonography examinations were performed during the postoperative period, and histological examinations were performed at day 30 after the first application of laser therapy. In particular, results from histological examinations indicate that both treatments induced a statistically significant cell number decrease, although only in the second group did the values return to normal. Moreover, the MLS laser therapy dose of 2.5 J/cm2 (group 2) caused a significant decrease of vessel area.

Conclusions: In this study, clinical and histological evaluation demonstrated that a therapeutic dose <5 J/cm2 furnished an anti-inflammatory effect, and induced a decrease of fibroblasts and vessel area. Overall, our results suggest that MLS laser therapy was effective in improving collagen fiber organization in the deep digital flexor tendon.

Wpływ promieniowania laserowego IR na przetrwanie i potencjalny stan zapalny przez Candida SPP, udział w patogenezie zapalenia błony śluzowej wywołane doustną chemioterapią

Clemente A., Rizzetto L., Castronovo G., Perissi E., Tanturli M., Cozzolino F., Cavalieri D., Fusi F., Cialdai F., Vignali L., Torcia M. G., Monici M.

Effects of near-infrared laser radiation on the survival and inflammatory potential of Candida spp. involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis; 34(10):1999-2007, 2015

Candida spp. usually colonize ulcerative lesions of atrophic mucosa in patients with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis inducing severe inflammation. The spread of antifungal-resistant strains strongly encouraged the search of complementary or alternative therapeutic strategies to cure inflamed mucosa. In this paper, we studied the effects of a near-infrared (NIR) laser system with dual-wavelength emission (808 nm+904 nm) on the survival and inflammatory potential of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Laser treatment was performed with a Multiwave Locked System laser. Survival and apoptosis of fungal strains were evaluated by colony-forming units(CFU) counting and annexin V staining. Cytokine production was evaluated by ImmunoPlex array. Laser treatment significantly affected the survival of Candida spp. by inducing apoptosis and induced a lower production of inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells compared to untreated fungi. No differences in the survival and inflammatory potential were recorded in treated or untreated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, used as the control non-pathogenic microorganism. Laser treatment altered the survival and inflammatory potential of pathogenic Candida spp. These data provide experimental support to the use of NIR laser radiation as a co-adjuvant of antifungal therapy in patients with oral mucositis (OM) complicated by Candida infections.

W badaniach in vitro na temat bezpieczeństwa promieniowania IR, jego potencjalnego zastosowania jako leczenie po mastektomii, w celu leczenia obrzęku limfatycznego

Cialdai F., Landini I., Capaccioli S., Nobili S., Mini E., Lulli M., Monici M.

In vitro study on the safety of near infrared laser therapy in its potential application as postmastectomy lymphedema treatment

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 151 (285–296), 2015

Clinical studies demonstrated the effectiveness of laser therapy in the management of postmastectomy lymphedema, a discomforting disease that can arise after surgery/radiotherapy and gets progressively worse and chronic. However, safety issues restrict the possibility to treat cancer patients with laser therapy, since the effects of laser radiation on cancer cell behavior are not completely known and the possibility of activating postmastectomy residual cancer cells must be considered.

This paper reports the results of an in vitro study aimed at investigating the effect of a class IV, dual-wavelength (808 nm and 905 nm), NIR laser system on the behavior of two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (namely, MCF7 and MDA-MB361 cell lines), using human dermal fibroblasts as normal control. Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and ability to form colonies were analyzed in order to perform a cell-based safety testing of the laser treatment in view of its potential application in the management of postmastectomy lymphedema. The results showed that, limited to the laser source, treatment conditions and experimental models used, laser radiation did not significantly affect the behavior of human breast adenocarcinoma cells, including their clonogenic efficiency. Although these results do not show any significant laser-induced modification of cancer cell behavior, further studies are needed to assess the possibility of safely applying NIR laser therapy for the management of postmastectomy lymphedema.

Efekty działania laserów dwufalowych IR o dużej mocy, w badaniu bólu na ściskanie na szczurach

Di Cesare Mannelli L., Ghelardini C., Micheli L., Cialdai F., Vignali L., Fusi F., Monici M.

Effect of high power dual wavelenght NIR laser emission in a rat model of compressive pain.

Energy for Health [14] 2015

Chronic pain condition, such as neuropathic pain, is one of the most important health problems worldwide and, due to its uncertain etiology and poor response to therapy, it represents an important challenge for medicine. Although, nowadays, there are many drugs for the treatment of chronic pain, their use is limited by the frequent side effects and, in some cases, ineffectiveness.

Thus, the search for new therapeutic strategies which minimize this important problem is actually growing.

Since many years, laser therapy has been used as a physical therapy for pain relief and has become increasingly popular because it is non-invasive and no side effects have been reported after treatment. However, its true effectiveness is still controversial because of the counteracting results reported in literature.

In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of a high power, dual wavelenght NIR laser source in producing fast analgesic effect in a rat model of neuropathic pain, induced through loose ligation of the sciatic nerve. Twelve animals were included in the study and two treatment protocols were tested, one performed daily, the other every 48 hours, with a total of 5 applications.

Both protocols used were able to statistically increase the pain threshold of the ipsilateral paw (the one with loose ligation of the sciatic nerve), starting 5 min after their first applications. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of laser treatment terminated 60 min after application. It started again, showing the same anti-hypersensitivity profile, during the subsequent applications.

The treatment protocol tested in this in vivo study in animal model might be applied to give the patient immediate pain relief and combined with treatments aimed to reduce inflammation, thus leading to analgesic effects that lasts over time.

Zastosowanie terapii MLS® na dyskopatię z radikulopatią: analiza przypadku

Grennell M.

Application of MLS® therapy on a disc herniation with radiculopathy: a case study.

Energy for Health [14], 2015

This paper presents the case of a 17 year old female who suffered from severe lumbalgia and radiculopathy into the left leg. The purpose of this clinical case was to determine the effects of NIR laser therapy on pain associated with disc herniation. The source used was a Multiwave Locked System (MLS®) MLS® Laser. The instrument consisted of two assembled laser diodes with synchronized emissions at 808 and 905 nm, respectively. The technique utilized to apply the laser radiation was the global approach using both the ultrahead and handpiece to deliver the treatment. Laser application was initially performed three times per week for the first course of treatment and decreased in frequency for the remainder of care according to the patient’s reduction in subjective findings. The patient’s progress was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A percentage improvement scale was also utilized to determine the percent improvement in pain and range of motion. The results showed steady improvement of pain relief during the seven month course of treatment. At nine months the pain was not present. The results indicate that MLS® laser therapy has beneficial effects on pain associated with disc herniation.

Oddziaływanie promieniowania laserowego MLS na płynność błon erytrocytów i drugorzędowej struktury albuminy surowicy ludzkiej

Pasternak K., Nowacka O., Wróbel D., Pieszyński I., Bryszewska M., Kujawa J.

Influence of MLS laser radiation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity and secondary structure of human serum albumin

Mol Cell Biochem; 388:261–267, 2014

The biostimulating activity of low level laser radiation of various wavelengths and energy doses is widely documented in the literature, but the mechanisms of the intracellular reactions involved are not precisely known. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of low level laser radiation from an multiwave locked system (MLS) of two wavelengths (wavelength = 808 nm in continuous emission and 905 nm in pulsed emission) on the human erythrocyte membrane and on the secondary structure of human serum albumin (HSA). Human erythrocytes membranes and HSA were irradiated with laser light of low intensity with surface energy density ranging from 0.46 to 4.9 J cm-2 and surface energy power density 195 mW cm-2 (1,000 Hz) and 230 mW cm-2 (2,000 Hz). Structural and functional changes in the erythrocyte membrane were characterized by its fluidity, while changes in the protein were monitored by its secondary structure. Dose-dependent changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity were induced by near-infrared laser radiation. Slight changes in the secondary structure of HSA were also noted. MLS laser radiation influences the structure and function of the human erythrocyte membrane resulting in a change in fluidity.

Wpływ laseroterapii MLS na kliniczne objawy zaburzeń mikrokrążenia oraz wybranych modulatorach angiogenezy u chorych na chorobę Raynauda

Kuryliszyn-Moskal A., Kita J., Dakowicz A., Chwieśko-Minarowska S., Moskal D., Kosztyła-Hojna B., Jabłońska E., Klimiuk P.A.

The influence of Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microcirculatory abnormalities and selected modulators of angiogenesis in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon

Clin Rheumatol; DOI 10.1007/s10067-014-2637-8, 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Multiwave Locked System(MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microvascular changes in nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) and circulating modulators releasing as a consequence of vascular endothelium injury such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Seventy-eight RP patients and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. All patients with RP received MLS laser irradiation for 3 weeks. Clinical, NVC and laboratory investigations were performed before and after the MLS laser therapy. The serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 3 weeks of MLS laser therapy, the clinical improvement manifested by decreasing of the number of RP attacks, mean duration of Raynaud’s attack and pain intensity in RP patients was observed. After MLS laser therapy in 65 % of patients with primary and in 35% with secondary RP, an increase in the loop number and/or a reduction in avascular areas in NVC were observed. In comparison with a control group, higher serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 in RP patients was demonstrated. After MLS laser therapy, a reduction of Ang-2 in both groups of RP patients was found. Our results suggest that NVC may reflect microvascular changes associated with clinical improvement after MLS laser therapy in patients with primary and secondary RP. Ang-2 serumlevels may be a useful marker of microvascular abnormalities in RP patients treated with MLS laser therapy.

Wpływ promieniowania laserowego MLS na strukturę błon komórkowych i wytwarzanie rodników

Kujawa J., Pasternak K., Zavodnik I., Irzmański R., Wróbel D., Bryszewska M.

The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation

Lasers in Medical Science; 29(5): 1663-1668, 2014

The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm(2), spot size was 3.18 cm(2)) at 22 °C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

Leczenie przewlekłego bólu w obszarze czaszkowo-twarzowym za pomocą lasera Mphi

Bennett C. A., Olmos S. R.

Treatment of Chronic Craniofacial Pain with Mphi Laser and Orthotic

Energy for Health [13] 2014

Laser therapy has become an increasingly adopted method of physical medicine to help accelerate healing and reduce pain. Treatment of craniofacial pain using laser therapy has also been vastly researched. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the treatment protocol we use is efficacious in decreasing the painful symptoms of craniofacial pain immediately after treatment. 65 patients (age range 13 to 65) were treated with a dual wavelength NIR laser source. In this Multiwave Loked System (MLS®) laser the two emissions at 808 nm and 905 nm, respectively, with continuous chopped and pulsed delivery, are synchronized. TM joints, masseters, trapezius muscles, and cervical area were treated. The patients were asked to state their overall pain level pre and post treatment using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). This was then converted into a percentage for ease of documentation. A comparison of pre and post VAS scales showed a 49.9% decrease in pain after the first treatment, 25.2% decrease after the second treatment and 9.0% decrease after the third treatment. In conclusion, the protocol used in the study provided a clinically relevant decrease in craniofacial pain, and a treatment duration of 8 minutes per session could be adapted to the normal clinical setting.

Laseroterapia punktowa z MLS® urządzenie Mphi: bezpieczeństwo i skuteczność w chorobie stawów, wstępne doniesienia

Viliani T.

Laserpuncture with MLS® (Multiwave Locked System) system Mphi: safety and clinical efficacy in joint disease, preliminary data

Energy for Health [13] 2014

The article discusses preliminary results of laser acupuncture with Multiwave Locked System in osteoarticular diseases. Laser acupuncture is a modern technique to stimulate acupoints without needling. The effects of laserpuncture on 67 adult outpatients are discussed. Laser acupuncture showed to be a safe and painless tool to manage osteoarticular pain. Parameters, dosages and modality are discussed: laserpuncture needs lower frequency and lower dosage than other laser’s therapy protocols. Our results suggest that laserpuncture with MLS® could be a good non-pharmacological treatment in the management of chronic pain.

Obszary zastosowania i efekty terapii laserowej w weterynarii: przegląd niektórych przypadków

Rossin A.

Fields of application and effects of laser therapy in veterinary: an overview on some case reports

Energy for Health [13] 2014

In recent years, the use of laser therapy has had a significant expansion in the veterinary field. Laser therapy, having achieved remarkable results in the field of human health, has also been applied to the veterinary field with equal success and its use is extending to all domestic species and even exotic animals. The situation is constantly changing, since in addition to the application of laser therapy in different therapeutic areas, it was necessary to evaluate the differences among the species in order to optimize treatment protocols. The passage from the human to the veterinary physiotherapy was the first step towards an increasing amount of applications: arthritis, neurology, dermatology and the most diverse fields of application, of course in different species, as clearly demonstrated by the case reports described by many colleagues who use almost daily laser therapy. MLS® Laser therapy has proven its effectiveness in different situations: the synergistic effect of the two wavelengths has proven a very valuable asset in counteract diseases characterized by inflammation and pain, promoting tissue repair and homeostasis. Thanks to these characteristics MLS® therapy may be applied to manage many different diseases. The laser-tissue interaction can induce photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical effects. It has been demonstrated by many studies that these effects can interfere with molecular and cellular mechanisms, thus affecting biological processes such as inflammation and pain transmission, improving the symptomatology and accelerating healing. After two/three applications, a very high percentage of patients treated for joint diseases significantly improved, as demonstrated by clinical cases found at asaveterinary.com. Moreover, in dermatology, the effect of tissue repair and regeneration, that the literature attributed, at least in part, to the laser-induced increase in ATP synthesis, in many cases shortens 30% – 40% the time required for wound healing by second intention. An interesting case report has shown promising results by applying the laser therapy to help fracture repair: improvement in the formation of bone callus, reduction of pain and inflammation have been observed, with consequent reduction in the recovery time. In the field of neurology, the conservative treatment of hernia/disc protrusion has shown a marked improvement in the patient, with reduced symptoms after 3-4 applications. Even in the field of equine excellent results have been obtained: in addition to „classical” cases with inflammatory lesions in the distal part of the limbs, it has been observed that in pathologies related to tendon injuries, there is a strong stimulation of new functional tissue formation, without abnormal scarring, which can then give rise to adherences and functional reduction of the affected part. Furthermore, specialists in various fields and cooperating with ASA are studying protocols for exotic animals, mammals, reptiles and birds, protocols for dermatology and increasingly specific therapeutic protocols for the treatment of stomatitis / gingivitis in cats. The development of clinical protocols is the result of collaboration between specialists in different disciplines, ASA Research Division and the Joint Laboratory with the Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, and includes the study, both in vitro and in vivo, of action mechanisms that are the basis of therapeutic effects and clinical validation of the treatment effectiveness.

Przewidywana analiza efektów termicznych w pigmentach skóry, tkance podskórnej w trakcie terapii laserowej IR

Rossi F., Pini R., Romano G., Cialdai F., Fusi F., Monici M.

A predictive analysis of thermal effects in pigmented skin and underlying tissues during IR laser therapy.

Energy for Health [12] 2014

Infrared lasers are widely used in sport medicine and rehabilitation for their ability to induce a selective heating of localized portions of tissue. The desired effect is optimized by varying laser parameters (wavelength, emission modality, power). In this work we present a modelling study aimed at analyzing the thermal effects in the skin in dependence of irradiation conditions (treatment time and scanning mode of the laser probe) and skin pigmentation. The modelling study has been supported by a preliminary experimental study in albino and black mice. The results highlighted the dependence of the temperature values reached in different types of skin, on the concentration of epidermal melanosomes: the same laser induced thermal effects below the threshold of thermal damage in a light pigmented skin (45°C for a 5s arthrosis treatment) and might induce thermal damage in a dark pigmented skin (65°C in the same conditions). Moreover, it has been found out that the scanning mode of the laser light may be modulated in order to induce different thermal regimens in the skin (outer layers and deep layers). This predictive analysis may be used as an effective tool to draft guidelines for laser therapies as well as to design personalized clinical protocols.

Porównanie terapii MLS i zabiegu polem magnetycznym niskiej częstotliwości na funkcjonalność ręki oraz jakości życia u chorych z reumatoidalnym zapaleniem stawów – badania wstępne

Chwieśko-Minarowska S., Kuryliszyn-Moskal A., Pijanowska M., Jabłońska M.

The comparison of multi-waved locked system laser and low-frequency magnetic field therapy on hand function and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis – preliminary study

Acta Balneologica; 56, 4(138): 181-184

Introduction: The progression of in!ammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leads to destruction of synovial membrane, joint surface, loss of function and mobility. Comprehensive rehabilitation consists of exercises, modalities, orthoses and occupational therapy.

Goal: The aim of this study was to compare the multi-waved locked system (MLS) laser therapy with low-frequency magnetic „eld (MF) therapy on hand function and quality of life in RA patients.

Methods: The study was conducted among 30 patients with RA. First group (n=15) received ten sessions MLS laser therapy (intensity 50%, 500 Hz, 808 nm, 905 nm), second group (n=15) received ten sessions MF therapy (5-23 Hz, 3-7.5 mT). The intensity of pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale, hand function by Brief Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire.

Results: Reduction of pain was reported in the MLS laser therapy group, but not in the MF group. In both groups a decrease of swollen joints number (Ritchie Articular Index) was observed. Moreover, improvement of hand function, grip strength and quality of life (Health Assessment Questionnaire) were also observed, especially in MLS laser therapy group.

Conclusion: MLS laser therapy appears to be more e$ective modality, than MF therapy in patients with RA with hand involvement.

Efekt terapii MLS u zawodowych piłkarzy dotkniętych urazami mięśni: kontrolowane badanie kliniczne

Galanti G., Stefani L., Iacchi A., Lonero L., Moretti A.

The effect of MLS Laser Therapy in élite football players affected by muscles injuries: a controlled clinical trial.

Energy for Health [10] 2013

Muscle injuries are frequent in élite football players, with a percentage of 30-40% of all injuries. The 22% of total injuries are muscular relapses. The focus of this study was to evaluate how the laser therapy could modify the recovery time in élite football player. The treatments have been performed with a Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser. The sample group of football players was divided into two groups: the first group has been subjected to the standard rehabilitation program without MLS laser irradiation, the second group has been treated with the new rehabilitation program that included laser therapy.

We compared the average injury’s duration in the two groups to establish the efficacy of the MLS laser treatment in accelerating rehabilitation. In spite of a positive trend observed in the laser-treated group, which showed a decrease of the recovery time on the basis of the lesions considered, the difference in comparison with the control group was not statistically significant, also due to the low number of patients considered.

Therefore, the results suggest that laser therapy could be useful to shorten the recovery time after muscle injury, but further studies with a larger number of cases are required to statistically demonstrate the efficacy of the MLS laser therapy.

Wpływ lasera IR na mioblasty: badania proteomiczne

Monici M., Cialdai F., Ranaldi F., Paoli P., Boscaro F., Moneti G., Caselli A.

Effect of IR laser on myoblasts: a proteomic study

Molecular Biosystems, 2013

Laser therapy is used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to accelerate muscle recovery and in sports medicine to prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise. The aim of this research was to get insight into possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced IR laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism and stimulate the recovery of hypotrophic tissue. We studied the effect of IR laser treatment on proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeleton organization and global protein expression in C2C12 myoblasts. We found that laser treatment induced a decrease in the cell proliferation rate without affecting cell viability, while leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement and expression of the early differentiation marker MyoD. The differential proteome analysis revealed the up-regulation and/or modulation of many proteins known to be involved in cell cycle regulation, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation.

Porównanie działania przeciwbólowego i przeciwzapalnego klasycznej laseroterapii niskoenergetycznej i terapii MLS w zapaleniu surowiczym torebek

Momanu A.

Comparison of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the classical low level laser therapy and multiwave locked system in inflammations of serous bursae.

Sports Medicine Journal / Medicina Sportiva; 9 (4):2234-2240, 2013

Introduction. Infrared thermography is a non-invasive physiological test that since 1990 was recognized as a diagnostic tool by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. The method is based on the identification and the quantification of coetaneous thermal asymmetry. Several studies were conducted in time, showing thermographic variations in some soft tissue conditions.

Objectives. This study compares the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of classical laser therapy and multi-wave locked system (MLS) laser therapy by following the evolution of differences in temperature between the affected area and the unaffected controlateral area and the evolution of pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS).

Material and method. I divided the patients in the study into two groups: a group of patients received classic laser therapy and a group of patients received MLS laser therapy.

Results. In both group, the evolution of studied parameters (pain measured by visual analog scale and thermal gradient) demonstrate the efficiency of laser therapy in treating bursitis, yet the decrease of differences in temperature and of VAS score was steeper in the group under MLS therapy, the dissimilarity between the groups being relevant statistically.

Conclusions. Laser therapy demonstrate both an analgesic (evidenced by the relieve pain) and anti-inflammatory effect (evidenced by reduction of the thermal gradient) for bursitis affecting superficial bursae and the difference between this two types of laser therapy are statistically significant (MLS therapy has a greater analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect compared with low level laser therapy).

Rola czynników fizycznych w różnicowaniu komórek, naprawa i regeneracja tkanek

Cialdai F., Monici M.

The role of physical factors in cells differentiation, tissue repair and regeneration.

Tissue Regeneration – From Basic Biology to Clinical Application. Jamie Davies Ed., Intech – Open Access Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-876-2.

March, 2012

Physical factors may induce significant biological effects, therefore they can be applied in biomedical and biotechnological fields in order to drive and modulate biological processes. It is well known that both humoral and physical factors (in particular, but not limited to the mechanical ones) are necessary for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Both biochemical and physical factors can induce the cells to reprogram their functions to adapt dynamically to the environmental conditions. It is evident, therefore, that the only way to approach functional tissue regeneration and repair is to supply combined humoral and physical stimuli in a dose- and time-dependent manner. For example, in vitro studies have shown that a biomimetic environment simulating pulsatile flow is an indispensable condition for the tissue engineering of functional trileaflet heart valves from human marrow stromal cells. Static controls show morphological alterations and weaker mechanical properties (Hoerstrup et al., 2002). Studies on the role of physical factors in tissue repair and regeneration cover a very broad field that extends from investigations aimed at deepening our understanding of the physiological mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration to biotech advances in tissue engineering, such as development of biocompatible scaffolds, 3D cell culture systems and bioreactors, which in the future must integrate the delivery of biochemical factors with the provision of physical stimuli that are equally necessary. In this chapter, far from providing a comprehensive overview of this field of studies, we introduce some issues concerning the application of physical factors in biomedicine and biotechnology and report the results of our research on the application of various physical stimuli (gravitational and mechanical stresses, laser radiation, electromagnetic fields (EMF)) for modulating cell commitment and differentiation, cell adhesion/migration, production and assembly of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, with the final aim of understanding when and how physical stimuli can be useful for promoting tissue repair and formation of functional tissue constructs. We also briefly mention how, in past centuries, the role of physical factors in biological processes has been understood and physical stimuli have been applied for therapeutic purposes.

Efekt terapii MLS na parametry przewodnictwa nerwowego w rozwoju cukrzycowej neuropatii obwodowej, sensorycznej

Rader A.

The affect of MLS therapy on nerve conduction parameters in developing diabetic sensory peripheral neuropathy.

Energy for Health 09, 2012

The MLS laser is composed of an 808nm continuous emission laser and a 905nm pulsed emission laser that are synchronized. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the MLS laser on the injured tibial and peroneal nerves in diabetic sensory neuropathy. The sural nerve was chosen as an untreated control nerve. A controlled prospective study was performed on ten patients with documented type 2 diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy. Nerve conduction parameters were determined prior to therapy and reevaluated post therapy. The course of therapy was three weeks. F-wave chronodispersion (Fc) measurements at the completion of the study showed significant improvement with this therapy. Peroneal Fc went from 8.99ms to 6-19ms (p=.O15). Tibial Fc went from 10.30ms to 6-97ms (p=.OO1). The MLS laser therapy produced objective improvement in nerve function for persons with developing diabetic sensory neuropathy.

Efekt promieniowania laserowego MLS na aktywność ATPazy błon erytrocytów ludzkich

Pasternak K., Wróbel D., Gworys K., Kujawa J.

Effect of MLS laser radiation on the atpase activity of human erythrocyte membranes.

Kwart. Ortop. 1, str. 74, ISSN 2083- 8697

2012

Background. Therapeutic effects of low-energy laser radiation at different wavelengths and doses of energy is well known, but the exact mechanism of action of light on living cells is not yet known.

Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser emitting radiation of two wavelengths (808 nm in the continuous emission and 905 nm in the pulse emission) on human red blood cell membrane.

Materials and methods. Human erythrocytes were irradiated low-intensity laser radiation at different energy doses (0-15 J). As the parameters characterizing the structural and functional erythrocyte membrane changes ATPase enzyme activity was adopted.

Results. In the suspensions of membranes exposed to low-energy near-infrared laser radiation the dose-dependent changes of ATPase activity in blood cell membrane were found.

Conclusions. The study shows that a single exposure of erythrocyte membranes to MLS laser radiation causes changes in membrane enzymes activity.

Ocena porównawcza bezpośredniej skuteczność przeciwbólowej wybranych metod fizjoterapeutycznych u pacjentów z chorobą zwyrodnieniową stawu kolanowego. Raport wstępny

Kędzierski T., Stańczak K., Gworys K., Gasztych J., Sibiński M., Kujawa J.

Comparative Evaluation of the Direct Analgesic Efficacy of Selected Physiotherapeutic Methods in Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis. Preliminary Report

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil.;14 (6):537-44

2012

Background. The goals of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of two physiotherapeutic procedures: low energy laser therapy and low frequency transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and to compare these modalities with regard to their therapeutic effects in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Material and methods. Fifty subjects were enrolled into the study and divided into two groups of 25 subjects. Group A received 10 MLS laser therapy sessions with a synchronised laser beam at doses of 12 J per treated site. Group B received ten sessions of low frequency TENS. The procedures were carried out every day for two weeks (5 times a week). All patients completed a personal data questionnaire and underwent an examination of knee joint motion range and circumference. Subjective pain intensity was assessed using the VAS pain scale and the modified Laitinen questionnaire.

Results. An analysis of the results of the treatment demonstrated statistically significant pain reduction in both groups. This improvement was significantly higher in the two-phase laser therapy group vs. the LF-TENS group. No statistically significant improvement was noted in either of the groups regarding the knee joint range of motion.

Conclusions. 1. Synchronised laser beam (MLS) therapy and low-frequency TENS contribute to direct pain relief effects in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. 2. The study confirmed better analgesic effects of two-phase laser therapy vs. LF-TENS.

Wpływ różnych metod terapii laserowej na ból w stawie kolanowym, funkcjonowanie pacjentów z chorobą zwyrodnieniową stawu kolanowego

Gworys K., Gasztych J., Puzder A., Gworys P., Kujawa J.

Influence of Various Laser Therapy Methods on Knee Joint Pain and Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil.;14 (3): 269-77

2012

Background. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of various laser therapy methods on knee joint pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Material and methods. 125 patients were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Group I received one-wave laser irradiation (wave length 810 nm, dose 8 J/point), Group II received two-wave MLS laser irradiation (power 1100 mW, frequency 2000 Hz, dose 12.4 J/point), Group III received a similar regimen of two-wave MLS laser irradiation, but at a dose of 6.6 J per point, Group IV was a placebo group where laser therapy procedures were simulated without actual irradiation. The effectiveness of the therapy was evaluated by means of Lequesne’s scale, a modified Laitinen questionnaire and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical analysis utilised non-parametric Wilcoxon’s and Mann-Whitney’s tests. Calculations were carried out with MedCalc v. 11.6.1.0.

Results. Statistically significant improvements in knee joint function and pain relief were seen in all Groups (I, II and III). When Groups I, II and III were compared, the largest improvement was found in Group II (MLS laser, dose 12.4 J/point). The degrees of improvement in Groups I and III were similar.

Conclusions. One-wave laser irradiation at a dose of 8 J per point and two-wave laser irradiation with doses of 12.4 J and 6.6 J per point significantly improved knee joint function and relieved knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis.

Prospektywne, randomizowane i kontrolowane badanie placebo skuteczności leczenia laserem z lub bez szynowania nadgarstka w idiopatycznym zespole cieśni nadgarstka

Rioja Toro J., Estévez Poy Pj, Martínez Pardo F.

A prospective, randomized and placebo controlled study of the efficacy of treatment with laser, with or without splinting of wrist in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome

Estudio prospectivo, aleatorizado y controlado con placebo, para valorar la eficacia del tratamiento con láser, asociado o no aortesis de muneca en el síndrome del túnel del carpo idiopático

Rehabilitación (Madr); 46(2):92-102

2012

Objective: To evaluate incidence by gender in the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the evolution in those treated with real laser (rL) versus those treated with placebo laser (pL), both groups without orthesis; evolution of wrist treated with rL plus orthosis versus those treated with rL without orthosis and evolution of wrist treated with rL + orthosis versus those treated with pL without orthosis.

Materials and methods: A total of 49 patients with CTS with mild or moderate involvement were selected. They were treated with laser 808 and 905nm and 25W peak power. In 15 patients, treatment was associated to orthesis in the most affected hand. In 12 patients, both hands were affected and orthosis was not used in 22. Total energy applied/session was 915 J/cm2 on an area of 4×4cm2.

Statistical analysis: The SPSS 15.0, Student’s T test was used, with significant values for P<.05, corroborated with the Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Results: The incidence was much higher in women (93.5%). In patients with orthosis, there are significant differences in all the values in the lasertreated subjects versus the placebo-laser treated ones. When orthesis was not used, there were significant differences between those treated with real laser versus those treated with placebo. In patients treated with laser and orthesis versus those treated with laser without orthesis, no significant differences were found. When patients treated with laser plus orthesis were compared with those treated with pL without orthesis, very significant differences were found in favor of the former. There are no significant differences between the values obtained at the first and third month of treatment.

Conclusions: Treatment with laser in CTS patients is more effective than placebo up to three months after the treatment has been completed. The use of orthotic devices and laser is no more effective than the use of laser alone.

Wpływ promieniowania IR na mioblasty: Perspektywy przeciwdziałania zanikowi mięśni wywołanego przez mikrograwitację

Monici M., Cialdai F., Romano G., Corsetto P.A., Rizzo A.M., Caselli A., Ranaldi F.

Effect of IR Laser on Myoblasts: Prospects of Application for Counteracting Microgravity-Induced Muscle Atrophy

Microgravity Science And Technology; 25(1):35-42

2012

Microgravity-induced muscle atrophy is a problem of utmost importance for the impact it may have on the health and performance of astronauts. Therefore, appropriate countermeasures are needed to prevent disuse atrophy and favour muscle recovery. Muscle atrophy is characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, and a shift in substrate utilization from fat to glucose, that leads to a reduced metabolic efficiency and enhanced fatigability. Laser therapy is already used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to accelerate muscle recovery and in sports medicine to prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise. The aim of the research we present was to get insights on possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced infrared laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism and stimulate the recovery of the hypotrophic tissue. The source used was a Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser, which combines continuous and pulsed emissions at 808 nm and 905 nm, respectively. We studied the effect of MLS treatment on morphology and energy metabolism of C2C12 cells, a widely accepted myoblast model, previously exposed to microgravity conditions modelled by a Random Positioning Machine. The MLS laser treatment was able to restore basal levels of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity and to counteract cytoskeletal alterations and increase in glycolytic enzymes activity that occurred following the exposure to modelled microgravity. In conclusion, the results provide interesting insights for the application of infrared laser in the treatment of muscle atrophy.

Terapia MLS® w leczeniu bólu mięśniowo powięziowego oraz bólu pourazowego szyi

Nunez G., Bertolini D., Piscopo C.

The MLS® therapy in postural myofascial pain and postraumatical of the neck

Energy for Health [9] 2012

2012

Myofascial pain is a common cause of chronic syndromes, not only of orofacial district, but also any other district; such painful syndromes often mimic other disorders, in relation to their location, and are still often be denied or underestimated. Myofascial pain is usually in an area known as Trigger points (TrPs). Laser therapy has been often proposed for the treatment of pain and disability management of various disorders. In comparison to the classical laser therapy, MLS therapy has several special characteristics: it combines laser emissions with two wavelengths (808 and 905 nm), one in the continuous mode (808 nm, with a maximum power of 1W), and the other one in a pulsed mode (905 nm, with a peak power of 25 W). The advantage of this laser system consists in better propagation inside the tissue respect to other wavelengths and in the possibility of increasing the emitted energy. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficacy of MLS in patients with myofascial pain. 30 patients with myofascial pain in the cervical region were enrolled in the study. The patient’s evaluation included Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Pain Disability Questionnaire that is a multidimensional questionnaire assessment of pain, disability and cognitive-behavioural aspects linkable to cervicalgia. The symptoms of pain was evaluated through the VAS scale, at the end of each session of MLS therapy and after one month after the end of treatment. Pain relief was good in both cases. MLS therapy has proven to be very effective in post traumatic myofascial pain. Myofascial postural pain needs a series of actions such as postural gymnastics that might improve the result.

Zastosowanie terapii MLS® u młodego sportowca w leczeniu przykurczu mięśni spowodowanych przeciążeniem – opis przypadku

Galanti G., Moretti A., Lo Nero L.

Application of MLS® laser on muscular contracture caused by functional overload in a young athlete – case report.

Energy for Health [9]

2012

Myalgic fatigue (or muscular contracture caused by functional overload) is clinically detected as an unpleasant feeling of one or more muscles, that appears within 24 hours after exercise and disappears in 5-7 days. In athletes, often the muscular contracture is not due to pathological alterations of muscle metabolism, but rather to a condition of lack of training, as typically happens at the beginning of the training season or after a period of enforced rest due to trauma or injury. Laser therapy has long been widely used to treat muscle pain and contracture, and recently it has also been proposed to prevent injuries from overwork in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an advanced IR laser system, the MLS laser, in combination with the other components of standard therapy for the treatment of muscular contracture. MLS system is a laser device with special characteristics: it is equipped with synchronized combination of continuous and pulsed emissions. The first one (that may emit also in pulsed mode) with λ=808 nm and maximum power of 1W, the other one with λ=905 nm and peak power of 25W. Here we report the case of a 16 years old athlete in good health state and with no previous muscle injury. The athlete reported a rectus femoris pain after a work of multiple running on 200 meters. After 3 days of MLS treatment, associated with mobilization of the muscle, stretching and eccentric contraction exercise, the athlete reported negative clinical examination for pain and muscle contracture and was available to work with the team. Studies are in progress to confirm our findings increasing the number of cases and also evaluating the efficacy of MLS laser therapy on different types of injury.

Leczenie gonalgii pourazowej terapią MLS®: opis przypadku

Caruso G., Gervasi S., Salvadori D.

Physical treatment of post traumatic gonalgia by NIR laser therapy: a case report.

Energy for Health [9]

2012

In this paper we present a case report that refers to a female patient, aged 54, who suffered from post-traumatic knee pain. The clinical case described was part of a clinical trial whose purpose was to investigate the therapeutic effects of NIR laser therapy on knee pain. The laser source was a Multiwave Locked System (M6 device) provided by ASA s.r.l. (Arcugnano, Vicenza, Italy). The instrument consisted of two assembled laser diodes with synchronized emissions at 808 and 905 nm, respectively. The patient was treated 3 times weekly, for a total of 10 treatments. The patient’s pain, both before and after each session, was measured by using VAS scale, in order to evaluate the effect of the laser therapy. The data obtained show that, during the treatment, the patient had a progressive improvement in pain relief. At 60 days follow-up, it was observed that the effect of laser therapy persisted. The results we obtained in this study indicate that, with the chosen laser source (MLS) and treatment parameters, NIR laser therapy had beneficial effects on knee pain.

Efektywność terapii MLS® w reumatoidalnym zapaleniu stawów potwierdzone cyfrową termografią, wizualną skalą analogową

Momanu A., Csapo A.

Efficiency of MLS® therapy in abarticular rheumatism revealed by digital thermography and visual analog scale.

Energy for Health [08] 2011

A lot of 22 patients with acute pathology soft-tissue injuries (shoulder periarthritis, tendinitis, epicondylitis, bursitis), which was divided into two groups. The first group (G1) received treatment with conventional electrotherapy (interferential or diadynamics current, ultrasound) and 100 mW laser. The second group (G2), received conventional therapy electrotherapy and MLS therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the anthalgic and anti-inflammatory effect of the MLS laser therapy and the mono-channel laser treatment in abarticular rheumatism, by digital thermography (outlining the local anti-inflammatory effect by the decrease in the cutaneous temperature), soft tissue echography (visualization of tissular modifications) and by clinical methods (the visual analogue pain scale). The decrease of VAS values to 5 or 10 days of treatment is more important for MLS therapy. It is also apparent decrease in the temperature difference between the affected and the healthy area.

Zastosowanie terapii MLS® u psów z odleżynami, otwartymi ranami: opis przypadków

L. Dragone, S. Palladini, and M. Glazar.

MLS® Laser Therapy in dogs with pressure ulcers and open wound: case reports.

Energy for Health [07] 2011

The aim of this report is to describe the clinical application of MLS Laser Therapy as adjuvant therapeutic technique in combination with topical wound management for treatment of pressure ulcers and open wound in four dogs. The dogs have sustained trauma, were hospitalized in the physical therapy veterinary clinic and had wounds that had to be treated concurrently with neurologic conditions. Pressure ulcers and open wound were managed by topical wound medications and contemporaneously were irradiated twice daily with MLS pulse. The wounds were measured at the beginning of the treatment and at the end of the therapy and showed a reduction in size during the course of treatments. MLS laser therapy may be useful as adjuvant therapeutic tecnique for treatment of decubitus ulcers and open wounds in dogs.

Efekty terapii MLS® promieniowania na mioblasty linii C2C12

L. Vignali, F. Cialdai and M. Monici.

Effects of MLS® laser on myoblast cell line C2C12.

Energy for Health [07] 12-18 ; 2011

Laser is widely used in many medical fields and its effects are reported by several studies in literature. Very important are the applications in sports medicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation, based on the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oedema effects of laser therapy, as well as the stimulating action on tissue repair processes. In our study, we analyzed the effects of an advanced laser system, the Multiwave Locked System (MLS), on myoblasts in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this laser in promoting recovery of damaged muscle tissue. The MLS device consists of two synchronized diodes emitting at 808 and 905 nm, respectively. C2C12 murine myoblasts cell line was used as experimental model since it is a widely accepted model in muscle cells behavior studies. Viability and proliferation was assessed after a single treatment as well as after 4 consecutive treatment (1 treatment/day). No significant changes were observed in viability, while proliferation decreased after 4 treatments. Moreover, we found an increased expression of MyoD, a key factor in myoblasts maturation. Changes in cytoskeleton organization, in particular the networks of actin microfilaments and microtubules, were also observed. Decresed proliferation rate, increased MyoD expression and cytoskeleton rearrangement are consistent with myoblast differentiation. Finally the expression of molecules involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (EC M) turnover (collagen I, MMP-2, MMP-9) was analyzed. After 4 treatments, collagen I expression showed a 14% increase while MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased of 33% and 18%, respectively. These results suggest that MLS treatment could affect EC M turnover shifting the balance toward the production rather than to the degradation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that MLS treatment induces in muscle cells a biological response that could favour muscle cell differentiation and the recovery of diseased muscle tissue. A deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects described above and a greater understanding of the changes in the biological response to variations in instrumental parameters setting can lead to concrete improvements in treatment protocols.

Terapia MLS®: narzędzie do przeciwdziałania zanikowi mięśni wywołanego przez mikrograwitację

M. Monici

MLS® laser treatment: a tool to counteract microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

XXIV National Congress of Italian Association for Aeronautical and Space Medicine, Rome, June 2011

It is well known that muscle atrophy, together with bone loss and impairment of immune system, is a major problem in space missions and countermeasures are needed to prevent disuse atrophy and favour muscle recovery.

Studies on microgravity-induced muscle atrophy demonstrated that it is associated with a shift in substrate utilization from fat to glucose, altered mitochondrial function, increase in ATP consumption per force-time-integral, indicating a reduced metabolic efficiency.

Lasertherapy is already used in sports medicine to accelerate muscle recovery after exercise and prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise (Leal Junior et al., 2009).

The aim of the research we present was to get insights on possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism.

The laser source was a Multiwave Locked System (MLS), which combines continuous/pulsed emissions at 808 nm and 904 nm. respectively.

Wpływ promieniowania IR na mioblasty: Perspektywy przeciwdziałania zanikowi mięśni wywołanego przez mikrograwitację

M. Monici, F. Cialdai, G. Romano, A. Caselli, F. Ranaldi

Effect of IR laser on myoblasts: prospects of application for counteracting microgravity-induced muscle atrophy

Biennial International Symposium of the European Low Gravity Research Association, Antwerp, September 2011

Microgravity-induced muscle atrophy is a problem of utmost importance for the impact it may have on the health and performance of astronauts. Therefore, appropriate countermeasures are needed to prevent disuse atrophy and favour muscle recovery. Muscle atrophy is characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, and a shift in substrate utilization from fat to glucose, that leads to a reduced metabolic efficiency and enhanced fatigability. Laser therapy is already used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to accelerate muscle recovery and in sports medicine to prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise. The aim of the research we present was to get insights on possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced infrared laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism and stimulate the recovery of the hypotrophic tissue. The source used was a Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser, which combines continuous and pulsed emissions at 808 nm and 905 nm, respectively. We studied the effect of MLS treatment on morphology and energy metabolism of C2C12 cells, a widely accepted myoblast model, previously exposed to microgravity conditions modelled by a Random Positioning Machine. The MLS laser treatment was able to restore basal levels of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity and to counteract cytoskeletal alterations and increase in glycolytic enzymes activity that occurred following the exposure to modelled microgravity. In conclusion, the results provide interesting insights for the application of infrared laser in the treatment of muscle atrophy.

Porównanie wpływu laseroterapii niskoenergetycznej i ultradźwięków w leczeniu mięśniowo-powięziowego zespół bólowego barku : randomizowane, prowadzone metodą pojedynczej ślepe próby badanie kliniczne

Rayegani S.M., Bahrami M.H., Samadi B., Sedighpour L., Mokhtarirad M.R., Eliaspoor D.

Comparison of the effects of low energy laser and ultrasound in treatment of shoulder myofascial pain syndrome: a randomized single blinded clinical trial.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med; 47:391-90

2011

Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases. MPS impaired quality of life in the patients. There is a lot of controversy about different treatment options which include medical treatments, physical therapy, injections, ultrasound and laser. The effects of laser in MPS are challenging.

Aim: To assess the effects of laser and ultrasound in treatment of MPS.

Design: Randomized single blinded clinical trial.

Setting: Outpatient physical therapy clinic at university hospital.

Population: Sixty three subjects (females: 46, males: 17), (age range: 17-55 year old) who had a diagnosis of definite MPS were entered in the study.

Methods: We measured the pain intensity at rest, during activity and at night using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. The patients also filled the Neck Disability Index (NDI) form and the pain threshold provoked by pressure was determined using algometric assessment. Then, the patients were categorized randomly in groups A, B and C (receiving laser therapy, ultrasound and sham laser therapy, respectively). Six weeks after the initial visit, they were visited again and filled the forms again.

Results: Ultrasound was effective in VAS improvement during activity (46%), at rest (39%) and at night (35%). It also improved NDI scores (34%) and algometric assessment (37%). Laser was effective in VAS improving during activity (54%), at night (51%) and at rest (51%) and also improved NDI scores (73%). It was also found effective in algometric assessment improvement (105%). Laser resulted in more NDI score and algometric assessment improvements comparing to ultrasound (p<0.05).

Conclusion: This study introduces laser as one of the preferred treatments of myofascial pain syndrome in shoulder.

Polineuropatia cukrzycowa dystalna, symetryczna: Wpływ laseroterapii niskiej intensywności

Khamseh M. E., Kazemikho N., Aghili R., Forough B., Lajevardi M., Dabaghian F. H., Goushegir A., Malek M.

Diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy: Effect of low-intensity laser therapy.

Lasers in Medical Science; 26 (6): 831-835

2011

Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been considered as a treatment modality in diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of LILT on DSP. We examined 107 subjects with type 2 diabetes for detection of DSP using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Seventeen subjects were eligible to be enrolled in the study. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed in all eligible subjects as an objective method to confirm neuropathy. The participants received LILT three times a week for ten sessions. NCSs were reevaluated after completion of the treatment. The absolute changes in NCS parameters were considered to establish the effectiveness of the treatment. Baseline demographics were similar in all participants. The mean differences of NCV parameters were considered for comparison. At the end of the study, the subjects showed a significant increase in neural potential amplitudes (p < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated a significant positive effect of LILT on improvement of nerve conduction velocity on diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). This finding supports the therapeutic potential of LILT in DSP.

Modyfikacja wzrostu komórek ludzkich w badaniu in vitro z użyciem promieniowania laserowego niskoenergetycznego

Squizzato F., Mognato M., Facchin F., Corti L.

Cell growth modulation of human cells irradiated in vitro with low-level laser therapy.

Photomedicine and laser Surgery (2004) Vol 4; N.6 pg. 523-526

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different wavelengths and doses of laser radiation on in vitro cell proliferation. We evaluated the biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on two human cancer cell lines: HeLa (epithelial adenocarcinoma) and TK6 (lymphoblast). Our attention was focused on the combination of the two laser emissions as it could have a synergic effect greater than the single emission applied separately.

Background Data: The effects of LLLT on human cells are still poorly understood and unexplained. Several cell types were found non responsive to laser bio stimulation; in other cases, only a partial activation was observed.

Methods: A laser device was used for cell irradiation with a continuous wave diode (A = 808 nm), a pulsed wave diode (A = 905 nm), and a combined wave diodes (A = 808 nm + 905 nm), in the dose range of 1-60 .l/cm’.

Results: The effect of the combined low-level 808-905-nm diode laser irradiation were slightly superior to those achieved with either laser alone in HeLa cells. TK6 cellular proliferation was not found to be significantly affected by any of the energy levels and varying exposure doses investigated.

Conclusions: Our results are a confirmation of previous observations carried out on human cells, where only the proliferation of slowly growing cell populations appeared to be stimulated by laser light.

Terapia MLS® w leczeniu ostrego bólu barku, stożek rotatorów w procesach zapalnych

Smiderle C., Scapin M.

MLS® therapy treatment of acute shoulder pain in inflammatory processes of the rotator cuff.

Scientific Report MLS®- 2004

Shoulder pain is a complex pathology due to pathological processes involving the glenohumeral joint, the acromioclavicular joint, the ligaments or the supporting tendons. In this paper we illustrate the efficacy of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) Therapy in the treatment of acute shoulder pain in inflammatory processes involving the rotator cuff. Twenty patients underwent monotherapy treatment with MLS Therapy using the MIX5 system (ASA, Arcugnano, Vicenza). After an initial clinical-anamnestic examination, subjective and objective evaluations of the pain symptomatology are made right before treatment, after 10 days of application and after 30 days. At the end of MLS Therapy treatment the data are compared with each other using t-test: the results relative to the VAS (p<0.0001) and to the SRQ and SSRS parameters show a statistically significant improvement and, as already demonstrated previously, confirm MLS Therapy as one of the best solutions for rapidly reducing pain symptoms in many muscle-tendon diseases, guaranteeing longlasting benefits from the results.

Wyniki kliniczne w leczeniu patologii zniekształceń stawu skokowego i stawu kolanowego za pomocą terapii MLS®

Corti L., Rosa E., Norbiato V., Pedrini L.

Clinical results in the treatment of ankle and knee distortion pathologies with MLS® therapy.

Scientific Report MLS®- 2004

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) Therapy on osteo-musculotendinous pathologies previously not considered, such as trauma to the knee and ankle. The knee is a complex joint, extremely exposed to trauma and degenerative lesions; while the ankle bears the body weight and is thus very vulnerable and subject to sprains. Of the 28 patients included in this study, 11 had knee trauma, 18 had ankle trauma. A 10-day treatment with the M6 system (ASA, Arcugnano, Vicenza) was scheduled, making automatic execution of the therapy possible. The VAS scores before MLS Therapy, those before therapy but after palpation, and those right after treatment are compared through t-test. The results confirm the effectiveness of MLS Therapy in the remission of painful symptoms and in recovery of functionality in a short time, so as to allow, in many cases, for the suspension of therapy before completing the 10 sessions foreseen by protocol.

Terapia MLS®, zabieg fizykalny w leczeniu bólu barku: kontrolne badanie porównawcze

Corti L.

MLS® laser therapy treatment of shoulder pain: a controlled comparative study.

Scientific Report MLS®- 2004

The term “periarthritis” is commonly used to describe a range of painful situations in the shoulder region, including the impingement syndrome, acute and chronic calcific tendonitis, subacromial bursitis and adhesive capsulitis. These are complex and multifactorial clinical scenarios, which cause pain and reduced mobility. These pathologies are most commonly found in classic cases where the limb is subjected to excessive strain, either during work or following intense physical activity. Periarthritis is a strain-related pathology that affects the extra rotary muscles of the upper limb (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor) or the synovial bursae (subacromial, subcoracoid and subscapular). In some athletes, the shoulder is put through considerable strain and may be subject to repeated micro traumas. In the long term, these may determine a painful syndrome that is often the cause of a suspension of sports or work activity. The pain is frequently localized on the anterior/lateral face of the shoulder, tending to spread along the front face of the arm. Following the application of pressure, a strong pain in correspondence to the bicipital groove may arise. The painful symptoms also worsen when the joint is moved. In order to understand how the different clinical scenarios develop, we need to bear in mind some important anatomical/functional aspects.

Terapia MLS®, zabiegi wykonywane w patologii mięśni/ścięgien/kości

Tasca A.

MLS® therapy treatment of various osteo/muscolar/tendinous pathologies.

Scientific Report MLS®- 2004

Some osteo/muscular/tendinous pathologies are a source of considerable social costs due to their incidence amongst the population and their debilitating symptoms. The extent of the phenomenon and its consequent economic impact increase with the prevalence of the pathology, especially in the workplace. In order to provide a clear picture of the extent of the problem, we have provided some information regarding the incidence of some of the pathologies covered by this study.

Leczenie chronicznego lumbago z zastosowaniem terapii MLS® w kontrolowanym badaniu klinicznym

Venturin A., Ortolani M.

Treating chronic lumbago with MLS® therapy. A controlled trial.

Scientific Report MLS®- 2004

Lumbar pain is a symptom of variable etiology that is very widespread amongst the adult population, especially young adults in industrialized countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have been carried out over recent years, with varied findings as regards the incidence and social impact of this disease. This lack of accurate data is linked to the different sources of information, the very definition of lumbar pain, the various forms of behavior of sufferers depending on insurance systems and, finally, the different treatments used in different countries. In order to get a clear picture of the capacity of this phenomenon, it will be useful to provide some information on the prevalence of the disease, especially in the work environment, and its consequent economic impact. In Great Britain, for example, 46% of a random sample of the general population claims to have suffered from lumbago at least once in their lives. Also in Great Britain, there were 15 million medical visits for lumbago in 1993, leading to 1.5 million spinal X-rays, one million patients treated with rehabilitative physiotherapy, 100,000 hospital admissions, 30,000 day-hospital days and 24,000 surgical operations. Lumbago costs the country an estimated 520 million Euro/year.

Laser biostymulacyjny przyspieszający regenerację nerwów obwodowych w koaptacji „koniec do boku”: randomizowane, prowadzone metodą podwójnej ślepe próby badanie na szczurzym modelu nerwu pośrodkowego

Gigo Benato D, Geuna S, de Castro Rodrigues A, Tos P., Fornaro M, Boux E., Battiston B, Giacobini-Robecchi M.G.

Low-power laser biostimulation enhances nerve repair after end-to-side neurorrhaphy: a double-blind randomized study in the rat median nerve model.

Lasers in Medical Science (2004) 19: 57–65.

Previous studies have shown that low-power laser biostimulation (lasertherapy) promotes posttraumatic nerve regeneration. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of postoperative lasertherapy on nerve regeneration after end-to-side neurorrhaphy, an innovative technique for peripheral nerve repair. After complete transection, the left median nerve was repaired by end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the ulnar ‘‘donor’’ nerve. The animals were then divided into four groups: one placebo group, and three lasertreated groups that received lasertherapy three times a week for 3 weeks starting from postoperative day 1. Three different types of laser emission were used: continuous (808 nm), pulsed (905 nm), and a combination of the two. Functional testing was carried out every 2 weeks after surgery by means of the grasping test. At the time of withdrawal 16 weeks postoperatively, muscle mass recovery was assessed by weighing the muscles innervated by the median nerve. Finally, the repaired nerves were withdrawn, embedded in resin and analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Results showed that laser biostimulation induces: (1) a statistically significant faster recovery of the lesioned function; (2) a statistically significant faster recovery of muscle mass; (3) a statistically significant faster myelination of the regenerated nerve fibers. From comparison of the three different types of laser emissions, it turned out that the best functional outcome was obtained by means of pulsedcontinuous-combined laser biostimulation. Taken together, the results of the present study confirm previous experimental data on the effectiveness of lasertherapy for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest that early postoperative lasertherapy should be considered as a very promising physiotherapeutic tool for rehabilitation after end-to-side neurorrhaphy.